"Web Ontology Language (OWL)" .
icc:I2-Explanation a icc:Explanation
"Principle I2 uses 'vocabularies' to refer to the methods that unambiguously represent concepts that exist in a given domain. The use of shared, and formally structured (I1), sets of terms is an essential part of FAIR. Terminology systems, including flat ‘vocabularies’, hierarchical ‘thesauri’ and more granular specifications of knowledge such as data models and ontologies, play an important role in community standards. However, the vocabularies used for metadata or data also need to be findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable in their own right so that users (including machines) can fully understand the meaning of the terms used in the metadata. This principle has been criticized as ‘circular’ but as has been made clear earlier in this article, the simple use of a “label” (e.g. “temperature”) is insufficient to enable a machine to understand both the intent of that label (Body temperature? Melting temperature?) and the contexts within which it can be properly linked - same-with-same - to other similarly-labelled data. I2, therefore, requires that the vocabulary terms used in the knowledge representation language (principle I1) can be sufficiently distinguished, by a machine, to ensure detection of ‘false agreements’ as well as ‘false disagreements’." ;
"I2 Explanation" ;
"Current considerations are for communities to ensure that terminology systems and, for instance, the units of measure, classifications, and relationship definitions are themselves FAIR. Thesauri that are proprietary and not universally accessible should be avoided wherever possible, because machines (and indeed particular countries, regions or communities as a whole) may not have the authority to access their definitions, such that even data that is accessible after authentication via A1.2 may not be useful to an agent that has no authority to access the concept definitions used within that data." ;
"Ontologies defined in the ‘Web Ontology Language’ (OWL) and shared via a publicly accessible registry (e.g. BioPortal for life science ontologies; https://bioportal.bioontology.org/) are examples of formally represented, accessible, mapped, and shared knowledge representations in a broadly applicable language for knowledge representation, that are also compliant with the Findability requirements of FAIR, since BioPortal provides a machine-accessible search interface." .